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Three PIGGYBACK genes that specifically influence leaf patterning encode ribosomal proteins.

Pinon, V.; Etchells, J.P.; Rossignol, P.; Collier, S.A.; Arroyo, J.M.; Martienssen, R.A.; Byrne, M.E.


V. Pinon

P. Rossignol

S.A. Collier

J.M. Arroyo

R.A. Martienssen

M.E. Byrne


Leaves are determinate organs that arise from the flanks of the shoot apical meristem as polar structures with distinct adaxial (dorsal) and abaxial (ventral) sides. Opposing regulatory interactions between genes specifying adaxial or abaxial fates function to maintain dorsoventral polarity. One component of this regulatory network is the Myb-domain transcription factor gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1). The contribution of AS1 to leaf polarity varies across different plant species; however, in Arabidopsis, as1 mutants have only mild defects in leaf polarity, suggesting that alternate pathways exist for leaf patterning. Here, we describe three genes, PIGGYBACK1 (PGY1), PGY2 and PGY3, which alter leaf patterning in the absence of AS1. All three pgy mutants develop dramatic ectopic lamina outgrowths on the adaxial side of the leaf in an as1 mutant background. This leaf-patterning defect is enhanced by mutations in the adaxial HD-ZIPIII gene REVOLUTA (REV), and is suppressed by mutations in abaxial KANADI genes. Thus, PGY genes influence leaf development via genetic interactions with the HD-ZIPIII-KANADI pathway. PGY1, PGY2 and PGY3 encode cytoplasmic large subunit ribosomal proteins, L10a, L9 and L5, respectively. Our results suggest a role for translation in leaf dorsoventral patterning and indicate that ribosomes are regulators of key patterning events in plant development.


Pinon, V., Etchells, J., Rossignol, P., Collier, S., Arroyo, J., Martienssen, R., & Byrne, M. (2008). Three PIGGYBACK genes that specifically influence leaf patterning encode ribosomal proteins. Development, 135(7), 1315-1324.

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date 2008-04
Deposit Date May 23, 2013
Journal Development.
Print ISSN 0950-1991
Electronic ISSN 1477-9129
Publisher The Company of Biologists
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 135
Issue 7
Pages 1315-1324