We propose a phenomenological technique for modelling the emergence of active regions within a three-dimensional, kinematic dynamo framework. By imposing localized velocity perturbations, we create emergent flux tubes out of toroidal magnetic field at the base of the convection zone, leading to the eruption of active regions at the solar surface. The velocity perturbations are calibrated to reproduce observed active region properties (including the size and flux of active regions, and the distribution of tilt angle with latitude), resulting in a more consistent treatment of flux-tube emergence in kinematic dynamo models than artificial flux deposition. We demonstrate how this technique can be used to assimilate observations and drive a kinematic three-dimensional model, and use it to study the characteristics of active region emergence and decay as a source of poloidal field.We find that the poloidal components are strongest not at the solar surface, but in the middle convection zone, in contrast with the common assumption that the poloidal source is located near the solar surface. We also find that, while most of the energy is contained in the lower convection zone, there is a good correlation between the evolution of the surface and interior magnetic fields.
Yeates, A., & Munoz-Jaramillo, A. (2013). Kinematic active region formation in a three-dimensional solar dynamo model. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 436(4), 3366-3379. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stt1818