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Sulphur-Containing Compounds as a Response in Sea Urchins Exposed to Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals and SiO2-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Siller, L.; Piticharoenphun, S.; Lemloh, M.L.; Horrocks, B.R.; Kaulich, B.; Gianoncelli, A.; Hunt, M.R.C.; Brummer, F.; Medakovic, D.

Sulphur-Containing Compounds as a Response in Sea Urchins Exposed to Alkylated Silicon Nanocrystals and SiO2-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Thumbnail


Authors

L. Siller

S. Piticharoenphun

M.L. Lemloh

B.R. Horrocks

B. Kaulich

A. Gianoncelli

F. Brummer

D. Medakovic



Abstract

We report the effects of exposure to alkylated silicon nanocrystals (‘alkyl-SiNCs’ at concentration ~ 7.2 mg/L) and -Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with ultra-thin silica (‘SiO2-coated IONPs’ at concentration ~ 150 mg/L) on sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, respectively, studied with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscpoies using excitation from a synchrotron light source. A remarkably low mortality and low incidence of skeletal deformation is observed for exposure to both types of nanoparticles studied, despite the high concentrations employed in this work. XRF mapping demonstrates that both types of nanoparticle are found to agglomerate in the body of the sea urchins. FTIR spectra indicates that alkyl-SiNCs remain intact after ingestion and corresponding XRF maps show increased an oxygen throughout the organisms, possibly related to oxidation products arising from reactive oxygen species generated in the presence of the nanoparticles. Exposure to SiO2-coated IONPs is found to produce sulphur-containing species, which may be the result of a biological response in order to reduce the toxicity of the nanomaterial.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 8, 2015
Online Publication Date Jan 15, 2016
Publication Date Jan 15, 2016
Deposit Date Dec 14, 2015
Publicly Available Date Jan 19, 2016
Journal Key Engineering Materials
Print ISSN 1013-9826
Electronic ISSN 1662-9795
Publisher Trans Tech Publications
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 672
Pages 312-327
DOI https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.672.312
Keywords Sea urchins, Toxicity, Silicon nanocrystals, Iron oxide nanoparticles, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
Public URL https://durham-repository.worktribe.com/output/1393860

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