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Historicising the hydrosocial cycle

Schmidt, Jeremy J.

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This paper examines the historical claims made in support of the hydrosocial cycle. In particular, it considers how arguments advancing the hydrosocial cycle make historical claims regarding modernist conceptions of what water is (i.e. H2O) and its fit with society. The paper gives special emphasis to the society/nature dualism and to the notion of agency as key sites of contest in arguments regarding the hydrosocial cycle. It finds that, while several versions of the hydrosocial cycle seek to advance a political ecology more sensitive to non-human actions, these same accounts often do not address the robust account of non-human agency in the historical record. Evidence is presented regarding water’s agency amongst late 19th and early 20th century architects of key water management norms in the United States. This evidence troubles accounts of the hydrosocial cycle that critique the US experience and suggests new directions for rethinking the role of historical and institutional norms in water policy.


Schmidt, J. J. (2014). Historicising the hydrosocial cycle. Water alternatives, 7(1), 220-234

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Jan 1, 2014
Deposit Date Jan 9, 2017
Publicly Available Date Jan 19, 2017
Journal Water alternatives
Publisher Water Alternatives Association
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 7
Issue 1
Pages 220-234
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Published Journal Article (729 Kb)

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Copyright Statement
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license which permits any non commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. See

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