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A counter-image to the gravitational arc in Abell 1201: Evidence for IMF variations, or a 10^10 M⊙ black hole?

Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Edge, Alastair C.

A counter-image to the gravitational arc in Abell 1201: Evidence for IMF variations, or a 10^10 M⊙ black hole? Thumbnail


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Abstract

Abell 1201 is a massive galaxy cluster at z=0.169 with a brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) that acts as a gravitational lens to a background source at z=0.451. The lensing configuration is unusual, with a single bright arc formed at small radius (∼2 arcsec), where stars and dark matter are both expected to contribute substantially to the total lensing mass. Here, we present deep spectroscopic observations of the Abell 1201 BCG with MUSE, which reveal emission lines from a faint counter-image, opposite to the main arc, at a radius of 0.6 arcsec. We explore models in which the lensing mass is described by a combination of stellar mass and a standard dark-matter halo. The counter-image is not predicted in such models, unless the dark-matter component is negligible, which would imply an extremely heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) in this galaxy. We consider two modifications to the model which can produce the observed configuration without resorting to extreme IMFs. Imposing a radial gradient in the stellar mass-to-light ratio, ϒ, can generate a counter-image close to the observed position if ϒ increases by ≳60 per cent within the inner ∼1 arcsec (e.g. variation from a Milky-Way-like to a Salpeter-like IMF). Alternatively, the counter-image can be produced by introducing a central super-massive black hole. The required mass is MBH = (1.3±0.6)× 1010 M⊙, which is comparable to the largest black holes known to date, several of which are also hosted by BCGs. We comment on future observations which promise to distinguish between these alternatives.

Citation

Smith, R. J., Lucey, J. R., & Edge, A. C. (2017). A counter-image to the gravitational arc in Abell 1201: Evidence for IMF variations, or a 10^10 M⊙ black hole?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 467(1), 836-848. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx059

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 9, 2017
Online Publication Date Jan 13, 2017
Publication Date May 11, 2017
Deposit Date Jan 17, 2017
Publicly Available Date Jan 18, 2017
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 467
Issue 1
Pages 836-848
DOI https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx059
Related Public URLs https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.02745v1

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Copyright Statement
This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. ©: 2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.








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