Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa

Roffeis, Martin; Almeida, Joana; Wakefield, Maureen; Valada, Tatiana; Devic, Emilie; Koné, N’Golopé; Kenis, Marc; Nacambo, Saidou; Fitches, Elaine; Koko, Gabriel; Mathijs, Erik; Achten, Wouter; Muys, Bart

Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa Thumbnail


Martin Roffeis

Joana Almeida

Maureen Wakefield

Tatiana Valada

Emilie Devic

N’Golopé Koné

Marc Kenis

Saidou Nacambo

Gabriel Koko

Erik Mathijs

Wouter Achten

Bart Muys


While the concept of insect based feeds (IBFs) promises great potential, especially in developing countries, the sustainability performance of IBF production remains widely underexplored. Drawing on experimental data from rearing trials in West Africa, three different insect production systems were modelled ex-ante. The generic models served as a basis to analyse and compare the process performances of different IBF production systems using Musca domestica and Hermetia illucens reared on different substrates. The results show that the input efficiency in the production of IBF is largely determined by the quality of rearing substrates, the larval development time and the employed inoculation practises, i.e., the method by which eggs or larvae are added to rearing substrates. The H. illucens system ranked highest for conversion efficiency (substrate input per IBF output), but showed substantially higher inputs in labour, fossil energy and output of wastewater. M. domestica systems operated at lower conversion efficiencies, which resulted in higher outputs of residue substrates, together with higher emissions, land requirements, built infrastructure and water. By offering full disclosure of generic inventory data, this study provides data and inspiration for prospect research and development activities and offers a reference to future life cycle assessments (LCAs) on IBF.


Roffeis, M., Almeida, J., Wakefield, M., Valada, T., Devic, E., Koné, N., …Muys, B. (2017). Life Cycle Inventory Analysis of Prospective Insect Based Feed Production in West Africa. Sustainability, 9(10), Article 1697.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 16, 2017
Online Publication Date Sep 22, 2017
Publication Date Sep 22, 2017
Deposit Date Oct 11, 2017
Publicly Available Date Oct 13, 2017
Journal Sustainability
Publisher MDPI
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 9
Issue 10
Article Number 1697


Published Journal Article (3.5 Mb)

Publisher Licence URL

Copyright Statement
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

You might also like

Downloadable Citations