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Galactic reddening in 3D from stellar photometry – an improved map

Green, Gregory M.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas; Burgett, William; Draper, Peter W; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher

Galactic reddening in 3D from stellar photometry – an improved map Thumbnail


Gregory M. Green

Edward F. Schlafly

Douglas Finkbeiner

Hans-Walter Rix

Nicolas Martin

William Burgett

Peter W Draper

Heather Flewelling

Klaus Hodapp

Nicholas Kaiser

Rolf-Peter Kudritzki

Eugene A. Magnier

John L. Tonry

Richard Wainscoat

Christopher Waters


We present a new 3D map of interstellar dust reddening, covering three quarters of the sky (declinations of δ ≳ −30°) out to a distance of several kiloparsecs. The map is based on high-quality stellar photometry of 800 million stars from Pan-STARRS 1 and 2MASS. We divide the sky into sightlines containing a few hundred stars each, and then infer stellar distances and types, along with the line-of-sight dust distribution. Our new map incorporates a more accurate average extinction law and an additional 1.5 yr of Pan-STARRS 1 data, tracing dust to greater extinctions and at higher angular resolutions than our previous map. Out of the plane of the Galaxy, our map agrees well with 2D reddening maps derived from far-infrared dust emission. After accounting for a 25 per cent difference in scale, we find a mean scatter of ∼10 per cent between our map and the Planck far-infrared emission-based dust map, out to a depth of 0.8 mag in E(gP1 − rP1), with the level of agreement varying over the sky. Our map can be downloaded at, or from the Harvard Dataverse (Green 2017).


Green, G. M., Schlafly, E. F., Finkbeiner, D., Rix, H., Martin, N., Burgett, W., …Waters, C. (2018). Galactic reddening in 3D from stellar photometry – an improved map. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 478(1), 651-666.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 10, 2018
Online Publication Date Jun 2, 2018
Publication Date Jul 21, 2018
Deposit Date Jun 27, 2018
Publicly Available Date Jun 27, 2018
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Electronic ISSN 1365-2966
Publisher Royal Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 478
Issue 1
Pages 651-666


Published Journal Article (13.9 Mb)

Copyright Statement
This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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