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The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the HUDF: The Cosmic Dust and Gas Mass Densities in Galaxies up to z ∼ 3

Magnelli, Benjamin; Boogaard, Leindert; Decarli, Roberto; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Novak, Mladen; Popping, Gergö; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz Erik; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cortes, Paulo C.; Cunha, Elisabete da; Daddi, Emanuele; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Robert J.; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Oesch, Pascal; Riechers, Dominik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark T.; Werf, Paul van der; Wagg, Jeff; Weiss, Axel

The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the HUDF: The Cosmic Dust and Gas Mass Densities in Galaxies up to z ∼ 3 Thumbnail


Benjamin Magnelli

Leindert Boogaard

Roberto Decarli

Jorge Gónzalez-López

Mladen Novak

Gergö Popping

Fabian Walter

Manuel Aravena

Roberto J. Assef

Franz Erik Bauer

Frank Bertoldi

Chris Carilli

Paulo C. Cortes

Elisabete da Cunha

Emanuele Daddi

Tanio Díaz-Santos

Hanae Inami

Robert J. Ivison

Olivier Le Fèvre

Pascal Oesch

Dominik Riechers

Hans-Walter Rix

Mark T. Sargent

Paul van der Werf

Jeff Wagg

Axel Weiss


Using the deepest 1.2 mm continuum map to date in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, which was obtained as part of the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) large program, we measure the cosmic density of dust and implied gas (H2+H I) mass in galaxies as a function of look-back time. We do so by stacking the contribution from all H-band selected galaxies above a given stellar mass in distinct redshift bins, r M Mz > , dust * ( ) and r M Mz > , gas * ( ). At all redshifts, r M Mz > , dust * ( ) and r M Mz > , gas * ( ) grow rapidly as M decreases down to 1010 Me, but this growth slows down toward lower stellar masses. This flattening implies that at our stellar mass-completeness limits (108 Me and 108.9 Me at z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 3), both quantities converge toward the total cosmic dust and gas mass densities in galaxies. The cosmic dust and gas mass densities increase at early cosmic time, peak around z ∼ 2, and decrease by a factor ∼4 and 7, when compared to the density of dust and molecular gas in the local universe, respectively. The contribution of quiescent galaxies (i.e., with little on-going star formation) to the cosmic dust and gas mass densities is minor (10%). The redshift evolution of the cosmic gas mass density resembles that of the SFR density, as previously found by CO-based measurements. This confirms that galaxies have relatively constant star formation efficiencies (within a factor ∼2) across cosmic time. Our results also imply that by z ∼ 0, a large fraction (∼90%) of dust formed in galaxies across cosmic time has either been destroyed or ejected to the intergalactic medium.


Magnelli, B., Boogaard, L., Decarli, R., Gónzalez-López, J., Novak, M., Popping, G., …Weiss, A. (2020). The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the HUDF: The Cosmic Dust and Gas Mass Densities in Galaxies up to z ∼ 3. Astrophysical Journal, 892(1), Article 66.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Feb 19, 2020
Online Publication Date Mar 30, 2020
Publication Date Mar 31, 2020
Deposit Date Apr 23, 2020
Publicly Available Date Apr 23, 2020
Journal Astrophysical Journal
Print ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher American Astronomical Society
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 892
Issue 1
Article Number 66


Published Journal Article (2.1 Mb)

Copyright Statement
© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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