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The LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Deep Fields -- Data Release 1: IV. Photometric redshifts and stellar masses

Duncan, K.J.; Kondapally, R.; Brown, M.J.I.; Bonato, M.; Best, P.N.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Bondi, M.; Bowler, R.A.A.; Cochrane, R.K.; Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Jarvis, M.J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Leslie, S.K.; Małek, K.; Morabito, L.K.; O'Sullivan, S.P.; Prandoni, I.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.W.; Smith, D.J.B.; Wang, L.; Wołowska, A.

The LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Deep Fields -- Data Release 1: IV. Photometric redshifts and stellar masses Thumbnail


K.J. Duncan

R. Kondapally

M.J.I. Brown

M. Bonato

P.N. Best

H.J.A. Röttgering

M. Bondi

R.A.A. Bowler

R.K. Cochrane

G. Gürkan

M.J. Hardcastle

M.J. Jarvis

M. Kunert-Bajraszewska

S.K. Leslie

K. Małek

S.P. O'Sullivan

I. Prandoni

J. Sabater

T.W. Shimwell

D.J.B. Smith

L. Wang

A. Wołowska


The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) is a sensitive, high-resolution 120-168 MHz survey split across multiple tiers over the northern sky. The first LoTSS Deep Fields data release consists of deep radio continuum imaging at 150 MHz of the Boötes, European Large Area Infrared Space Observatory Survey-North 1 (ELAIS-N1), and Lockman Hole fields, down to rms sensitivities of ∼32, 20, and 22 μJy beam−1, respectively. In this paper we present consistent photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for the optical source catalogues in all three fields - totalling over 7 million sources (∼5 million after limiting to regions with the best photometric coverage). Our photo-z estimation uses a hybrid methodology that combines template fitting and machine learning and is optimised to produce the best possible performance for the radio continuum selected sources and the wider optical source population. Comparing our results with spectroscopic redshift samples, we find a robust scatter ranging from 1.6 to 2% for galaxies and 6.4 to 7% for identified optical, infrared, or X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our estimated outlier fractions (|zphot−zspec|/(1+zspec)>0.15) for the corresponding subsets range from 1.5 to 1.8% and 18 to 22%, respectively. Replicating trends seen in analyses of previous wide-area radio surveys, we find no strong trend in photo-z quality as a function of radio luminosity for a fixed redshift. We exploit the broad wavelength coverage available within each field to produce galaxy stellar mass estimates for all optical sources at z<1.5. Stellar mass functions derived for each field are used to validate our mass estimates, with the resulting estimates in good agreement between each field and with published results from the literature.


Duncan, K., Kondapally, R., Brown, M., Bonato, M., Best, P., Röttgering, H., …Wołowska, A. (2021). The LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey Deep Fields -- Data Release 1: IV. Photometric redshifts and stellar masses. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 648, Article A4.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Nov 14, 2020
Online Publication Date Apr 7, 2021
Publication Date 2021-04
Deposit Date Jan 11, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jul 15, 2021
Journal Astronomy and astrophysics.
Print ISSN 0004-6361
Electronic ISSN 1432-0746
Publisher EDP Sciences
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 648
Article Number A4
Related Public URLs


Published Journal Article (2 Mb)

Copyright Statement
Duncan, K. J., Kondapally, R., Brown, M. J. I., Bonato, M., Best, P. N., Röttgering, H. J. A., Bondi, M., Bowler, R. A. A., Cochrane, R. K., Gürkan, G., Hardcastle, M. J., Jarvis, M. J., Kunert-Bajraszewska, M., Leslie, S. K., Małek, K., Morabito, L. K., O'Sullivan, S. P., Prandoni, I., Sabater, J., Shimwell, T. W. Smith, D. J. B., Wang, L. & Wołowska, A., vol. 648, 2021, reproduced with permission, © ESO.

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