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Servant Leadership: How Daily and General Behaviors Interact

Kuonath, A.; Nossek, J.; Nieberle, K.W.; Kreitmeir, D.; Frey, D.

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A. Kuonath

J. Nossek

D. Kreitmeir

D. Frey


The present study takes a closer look at servant leadership from a daily diary perspective. We hypothesized daily servant leadership to positively relate to the follower resources: self-efficacy and optimism. We further proposed that this relation should be attenuated if followers do not perceive their leaders to also lead servantly on a general basis. In a diary study, 98 followers completed questionnaires over one week. Hierarchical linear modeling showed daily servant leadership to be associated with followers' daily self-efficacy, but not with followers' daily optimism. Additionally, for the proposed interaction of daily servant leadership with general perceptions of servant leadership, results confirmed the proposed interaction for followers' daily optimism, but not for daily self-efficacy.


Kuonath, A., Nossek, J., Nieberle, K., Kreitmeir, D., & Frey, D. (2021). Servant Leadership: How Daily and General Behaviors Interact. Journal of personnel psychology (Internet), 20(4), 187-197.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Oct 1, 2021
Publication Date 2021-10
Deposit Date Oct 20, 2021
Publicly Available Date Feb 4, 2022
Journal Journal of Personnel Psychology
Print ISSN 1866-5888
Electronic ISSN 2190-5150
Publisher Hogrefe
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 20
Issue 4
Pages 187-197
Public URL


Accepted Journal Article (248 Kb)

Copyright Statement
This version of the article may not completely replicate the final authoritative version published in Journal of Personnel Psychology at It is not the version of record and is therefore not suitable for citation. Please do not copy or cite without the permission of the author(s).

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