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Where and when are portion sizes larger in young children? An analysis of eating occasion size among 1·5–5-year-olds in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2017)

Porter, Alice; Toumpakari, Zoi; Kipping, Ruth; Summerbell, Carolyn; Johnson, Laura

Where and when are portion sizes larger in young children? An analysis of eating occasion size among 1·5–5-year-olds in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2017) Thumbnail


Authors

Alice Porter

Zoi Toumpakari

Ruth Kipping

Laura Johnson



Abstract

Objective: To identify eating occasion-level and individual-level factors associated with the consumption of larger portions in young children and estimate their relative importance. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Data from parent-reported 4-d food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2017) were analysed. Multilevel models explored variation in eating occasion size (kJ) within (n 48 419 occasions) and between children (n 1962) for all eating occasions. Eating contexts: location, eating companion, watching TV, and sitting at a table and individual characteristics: age, gender, ethnicity and parental socio-economic status were explored as potential correlates of eating occasion size. Participants: Children aged 1·5–5 years. Results: Median eating occasion size was 657 kJ (IQR 356, 1117). Eating occasion size variation was primarily attributed (90 %) to differences between eating occasions. Most (73 %) eating occasions were consumed at home. In adjusted models, eating occasions in eateries were 377 kJ larger than at home. Eating occasions sitting at a table, v. not, were 197 kJ larger. Eating in childcare, with additional family members and friends, and whilst watching TV were other eating contexts associated with slightly larger eating occasion sizes. Conclusions: Eating contexts that vary from one eating occasion to another are more important than demographic characteristics that vary between children in explaining variation in consumed portion sizes in young children. Strategies to promote consumption of age-appropriate portion sizes in young children should be developed, especially in the home environment, in eating contexts such as sitting at the table, eating with others and watching TV.

Citation

Porter, A., Toumpakari, Z., Kipping, R., Summerbell, C., & Johnson, L. (2022). Where and when are portion sizes larger in young children? An analysis of eating occasion size among 1·5–5-year-olds in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2017). Public Health Nutrition, 25(12), 3420-3431. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980021005024

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 22, 2021
Online Publication Date Dec 27, 2021
Publication Date 2022-12
Deposit Date Feb 16, 2022
Publicly Available Date Jan 24, 2023
Journal Public Health Nutrition
Print ISSN 1368-9800
Electronic ISSN 1475-2727
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 25
Issue 12
Pages 3420-3431
DOI https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980021005024

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