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Stellar feedback in M 83 as observed with MUSE II. Analysis of the H II region population: Ionisation budget and pre-SN feedback

Della Bruna, Lorenza; Adamo, Angela; McLeod, Anna F.; Smith, Linda J.; Savard, Gabriel; Robert, Carmelle; Sun, Jiayi; Amram, Philippe; Bik, Arjan; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Renaud, Florent; Walterbos, Rene; Usher, Christopher

Stellar feedback in M 83 as observed with MUSE II. Analysis of the H II region population: Ionisation budget and pre-SN feedback Thumbnail


Lorenza Della Bruna

Angela Adamo

Linda J. Smith

Gabriel Savard

Carmelle Robert

Jiayi Sun

Philippe Amram

Arjan Bik

William P. Blair

Knox S. Long

Florent Renaud

Rene Walterbos

Christopher Usher


Context. Energy and momentum injected by young, massive stars into the surrounding gas play an important role in regulating further star formation and in determining the galaxy’s global properties. Before supernovae begin to explode, stellar feedback consists of two main processes: radiation pressure and photoionisation. Aims. We study pre-supernova feedback and constrain the leakage of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation in a sample of ∼4700 H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxy M 83. We explore the impact that the galactic environment and intrinsic physical properties (metallicity, extinction, and stellar content) have on the early phases of H II region evolution. Methods. We combined VLT/MUSE observations of the ionised gas with young star cluster physical properties derived from HST multiwavelength data. We identified H II regions based on their Hα emission, and cross-matched the sample with planetary nebulae and supernova remnants to assess contaminant sources and identify evolved H II regions. We also spectroscopically identified Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars populating the star-forming regions. We estimated the physical properties of the H II regions (luminosity, size, oxygen abundance, and electron density). For each H II region, we computed the pressure of ionised gas (Pion) and the direct radiation pressure (Pdir) acting in the region, and investigated how they vary with galactocentric distance, with the physical properties of the region, and with the pressure of the galactic environment (PDE). For a subset of ∼500 regions, we also investigated the link between the pressure terms and the properties of the cluster population (age, mass, and LyC flux). By comparing the LyC flux derived from Hα emission with the one modelled from their clusters and WRs, we furthermore constrained any escape of LyC radiation (fesc). Results. We find that Pion dominates over Pdir by at least a factor of 10 on average over the disk. Both pressure terms are strongly enhanced and become almost comparable in the central starburst region. In the disk (R ≥ 0.15 Re), we observe that Pdir stays approximately constant with galactocentric distance. We note that Pdir is positively correlated with an increase in radiation field strength (linked to the negative metallicity gradient in the galaxy), while it decreases in low extinction regions, as is expected if the amount of dust to which the momentum can be imparted decreases. In addition, Pion decreases constantly for increasing galactocentric distances; this trend correlates with the decrease in extinction – indicative of more evolved and thus less compact regions – and with changes in the galactic environment (traced by a decrease in PDE). In general, we observe that H II regions near the centre are underpressured with respect to their surroundings, whereas regions in the rest of the disk are overpressured and hence expanding. We find that regions hosting younger clusters or those that have more mass in young star clusters have a higher internal pressure, indicating that clustered star formation likely plays a dominant role in setting the pressure. Finally, we estimate that only 13% of H II regions hosting young clusters and WR stars have fesc ≥ 0, which suggests that star formation taking place outside young clusters makes a non-negligible contribution to ionising H II regions.


Della Bruna, L., Adamo, A., McLeod, A. F., Smith, L. J., Savard, G., Robert, C., …Usher, C. (2022). Stellar feedback in M 83 as observed with MUSE II. Analysis of the H II region population: Ionisation budget and pre-SN feedback. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 666, Article A29.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 17, 2022
Online Publication Date Sep 30, 2022
Publication Date 2022
Deposit Date Oct 24, 2022
Publicly Available Date Feb 20, 2023
Journal Astronomy & Astrophysics
Print ISSN 0004-6361
Electronic ISSN 1432-0746
Publisher EDP Sciences
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 666
Article Number A29


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Copyright Statement
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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