In this article we investigate the spectral properties of the infinitesimal generator of an infinite system of master equations arising in the analysis of the approach to equilibrium in statistical mechanics. The system under consideration thus consists of infinitely many first-order differential equations governing the time evolution of probabilities susceptible of describing jumps between the eigenstates of a differential operator with a discrete point spectrum. The transition rates between eigenstates are chosen in such a way that the so-called detailed balance conditions are satisfied, so that for a large class of initial conditions the given system possesses a global solution which converges exponentially rapidly toward a time independent probability of Gibbs type. A particular feature and a challenge of the problem under consideration is that in the infinite-dimensional functional space where the initial-value problem is well posed, the infinitesimal generator is realized as a non normal and non dissipative compact operator, whose spectrum therefore does not exhibit a spectral gap around the zero eigenvalue.
Boegli, S., & Vuillermot, P. (2022). A Spectral Theorem for the Semigroup Generated by a Class of Infinitely Many Master Equations. Acta Applicandae Mathematicae, 178(1), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10440-022-00478-x