Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Lecture notes on the Gaussian free field

Werner, Wendelin; Powell, Ellen


Wendelin Werner


The Gaussian Free Field (GFF) in the continuum appears to be the natural generalisation of Brownian motion, when one replaces time by a multidimensional continuous parameter. While Brownian motion can be viewed as the most natural random real-valued function defined on R+ with B(0) = 0, the GFF in a domain D of R d for d ≥ 2 is a natural random real-valued generalised function defined on D with zero boundary conditions on ∂D. In particular, it is not a random continuous function. The goal of these lecture notes is to describe some aspects of the continuum GFF and of its discrete counterpart defined on lattices, with the aim of providing a gentle self-contained introduction to some recent developments on this topic, such as the relation between the continuum GFF, Brownian loop-soups and the Conformal Loop Ensembles CLE4. This is an updated and expanded version of the notes written by the first author (WW) for graduate courses at ETH Zurich in 2014 and 2018. It has benefited from the comments and corrections of students, as well as of a referee; we thank them all very much. The exercises that are interspersed in the first half of these notes mostly originate from the exercise sheets prepared by the second author (EP) for this course in 2018.


Werner, W., & Powell, E. (2021). Lecture notes on the Gaussian free field. Société Mathématique de France

Book Type Authored Book
Publication Date 2021
Deposit Date Jul 19, 2021
Series Title Cours Spécialisés
Series ISSN 1284-6090
Publisher URL
Related Public URLs